Четыре смертельных болезни, которое победило человечество и ученые из Одессы

  Блог Анны Топчиу

Даже современным медикам с небывалыми техническими возможностями, по сравнению даже с прошлым веком, пока еще не удалось найти лекарство от СПИДа, онкологических и прочих болезней, уносящих каждый год миллионы жизней.

Однако в истории человечества в борьбе с вирусами, и, вследствие их распространения, эпидемиями, есть чем гордиться – ученые смогли остановить хвори, которые буквально выкашивали люд на право и на лево долгие века. От чего умирали до развития иммунологии и вакцинации, и как эти недуги смогла укротить наука.

ЧУМА

Сегодня если мы и слышим о чуме в Европе, то только свиной, а вот на некоторых континентах чума, которая донимала человечество еще с библейских времен, периодически все еще дает о себе знать. Так, в 2014 году на Мадагаскаре от болезни погибли 40 человек, а год до этого – 39. Правда, заболевших было в пару раз больше, чем тех, кто с болезнью не справился. По данным ВОЗ, в 2010-2015 гг. во всем мире было зарегистрировано 3248 случаев заболевания чумой, в том числе 584 случая смерти, а тремя наиболее эндемичными странами являются Мадагаскар, Демократическая Республика Конго и Перу. В наши же дни пандемии чумы, в том виде, который изнурял человечество в средние века, встречается разве что в медицинских сериалах и в триллерах с лихо закрученным сюжетом.

Симптоматика. По планете чума гуляла в двух видах – легочной (поражаются легкие) и бубонной (поражаются лимфоузлы), смерть от каждой из них была мучительной и болезненной. Сперва человек чувствует себя, как будто подхватил грипп: повышается температура, больного бьет озноб, ломит тело. Далее поражаются легкие или лимфатические узлы, у человека начинается бессонница и галлюцинации, при бубонной форме появляются пустулы, а затем язвы, при легочной – удушье и кашель с кровью. Больной умирает при поражении легких за 2-3 дня, лимфоузлов – до 6 дней. Распространялась чума, к слову, и вохдушно-капельным, и контактно-бытовым способом.

История укрощения. Первым, у кого получилось противостоять черной смерти, был одессит Владимир Хавкин: его вакцина, разработанная в Индии за три месяца и испытанная на себе, хоть и не была способна истребить чуму полностью, но смертность и заболеваемость значительно сократила. По-настоящему действенное лечение появилось только после Второй мировой войны, когда советские медики применили стрептомицин при ликвидации чумы в Маньчжурии в 1945–1947 годах: тогда лекарство помогло полностью вылечить больного.

Количество жертв. Первая известная пандемия началась в Египте в 551 году, распространилась по всему цивилизованному на тот момент миру, и унесла не меньше 100 млн жизней. От чумы скончалось до 34 миллионов человек населения Европы в 1347—1351. А третья пандемия чумы в Азии в конце ХІХ века сгубила больше 12 млн жизней. Кроме трех пандемий, то и дело в мире вспыхивали локальные эпидемии.

ОСПА

Черная оспа — это единственная болезнь, которую человечество истребило на корню: ВОЗ объявила о ее ликвидации в 1980 году после масштабной кампании по иммунизации. В последний раз случай заражения оспой был зарегистрирован в Сомали в 1977 году, после этого – ни разу, а запасы вируса до сих пор хранятся в двух лабораториях, в России и США, с высоким уровнем защиты.

Симптоматика. Когда оспа начала терроризировать человечество, ученые так и не определили: сошлись на том, что вирус эволюционировал между 68-16 тысячами лет назад. Болеть оспой было страшно и мучительно: сначала на коже больного появлялись пузырьки, которые вскоре превращались  в эрозии. Распространение этих пузырьков было не только на коже,  но и на оболочках носа, ротоглотке, гортани, и даже на внутренних и половых органах. Из-за этих рубцов у заразившегося развивался токсический шок, внутренние кровотечение, и человек погибал.

История укрощения. Вакцину от оспы придумал англичанин Эдуард Дженнер в 1796 году: ученый втер в два надреза на коже 8-летнего мальчика содержимое пузырьков с руки крестьянки, которая была заражена коровьей оспой, а через некоторое время врач попробовал привить мальчишке черную оспу, но не вышло. Эпидемий изобретение Дженнера не остановило, но такая вакцина помогла спасти не одну жизнь. Окончательный план уничтожения оспы в мире разработали советские медики, а приняли его на ассамблее Всемирной организации здравоохранения в 1967 году.

Количество жертв. По скромным подсчетам специалистов, за всю историю человечества оспа убила более 4 млрд человек. В Европе ежегодно от оспы умирали 1,5 млн жителей, начиная с XV.

ХОЛЕРА

Вспышки холеры регулярно встречаются и в наше время. Как правило, болезнь терроризирует жителей стран, в которых нет доступа к чистой питьевой воде и средствам санитарии. По оценкам исследователей, во всем мире ежегодно происходит от 1,3 до 4 миллионов случаев заболевания холерой и 21 –143 тысяч случаев смерти. По данным ВОЗ, холера представляет собой опасную болезнь, но  легко излечимую, правда, от того, как быстро пациент получит лечение, зависит его успех – умереть от холеры можно и за несколько часов, а процесс выздоровления может занять до 30 дней.

Симптоматика. Бактерия, попадая в организм вместе с грязной водой, может «спать» в теле до 5 дней, а потом начинает «буйствовать». У больного начинается стул, рвота, обезвоживание, судороги, тахикардия, повышается температура.

История укрощения. Холера мучила людей со времен Гиппократа, в XIX веке холера распространилась по всему миру из своего первоначального резервуара в дельте реки Ганг в Индии. В дальнейшем произошло шесть пандемий, которые унесли жизни миллионов людей на всех континентах. Вакцину от холеры придумал одессит Владимир Хавкин в 1892 году, доказав на самом себе её безопасность для человека. Прививки вакцины Хавкина стали после этого массовыми и применяются в улучшенном виде до сих пор. Правда, остановить холеру пока не получилось из-за социально-экономических факторов: текущая пандемия началась в 1961 году в Южной Азии, в 1971 году распространилась на Африку, а в 1991 году — на Америку.

Количество жертв. Холера уносила жизни, как королей, знати и художников, так и обычных крестьян. С 1817 года начинается волна непрерывных пандемий, которые унесли в XIX веке больше человеческих жизней, чем вспышка любой другой болезни.

ТИФ

Брюшной, сыпной и возвратный тиф долгое время не различали по типам, и все они вместе считались «гнилой горячкой». В мире разными видами тифа все еще болеют, чаще всего – в Африке, Азии, Южной Америке.

Симптоматика. Сыпной тиф переносят вши, а брюшной передается через продукты и воду. После укуса насекомого у больного поражается нервная и сердечнососудистые системы, начинаются лихорадка, галлюцинации и помутнение сознания, также на теле появляется сыпь. При брюшном тифе пациент страдает от диареи, развивается обезвоживание, часто также происходит нарушение сознания.

История укрощения. Это древнейшая болезнь человечества, свирепствовать начала в Европе. Эпидемии же начинались во время войн, когда у солдат не было возможности полноценно соблюдать правила гигиены, а вши множились и распространялись очень быстро. Первую вакцину разработал Алексей Пшеничников в 1942 году, а позже болезнь начали лечить антибиотиками.

Количество жертв. В истории войн сыпной тиф нередко оказывался решающим фактором: число жертв этой болезни часто превышало потери в сражениях, как, например, в Тридцатилетней войне, во время вторжения Наполеона в Россию, в Крымской войне, в Первой мировой. В послереволюционной России в период между 1917 и 1921 от сыпного тифа погибло около 3 миллиона человек. В 2000 году брюшным тифом в мире переболели 21,6 миллионов человек, из них около 1 % с летальным исходом.

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